Type rating in hand, now the fun begins… international training and IOE (initial operating experience).
During simulator training at the Flight Academy, I went to the flight standards scheduling desk and asked which trips they were planning to assign for my IOE. It is nice having some idea of where you are going otherwise the company would just call you two days prior with the assignment. So for the past two weeks, I have known that the company was going to send me on the following IOE trips: KMIA to LIMC (Miami, FL to Milan, Italy), KPHX to PHKO (Phoenix, AZ to Kona, HI), and KPHL to TJSJ (Philadelphia, PA to San Juan, PR).
Before I go into great detail on my first IOE trip, which is no doubt what most of you are interested in, I need to talk a little bit about my international training. This training was a four day course AFTER the type rating; it included three days of ground school and one day of simulator training.
What does it take to fly internationally? In order to be qualified to fly in various “theaters” of operation at our airline, you must get training in those theaters – we call them “divisions”. The route system is divided into six divisions shown below. Pilots must possess a qualification in a specific division to make an entry into any airport within that division.
- AE – Atlantic/Europe
- FE – Far East
- HI – Hawaii
- LA – Latin America includes Caribbean cities, overwater flights to Mexico, and Central and South America cities not included in LT.
- LT – Latin Terrain challenged cities: TGU, SJO, GUA, MDE, UIO, BOG, LPB, and CLO.
- Domestic – 48 Contiguous US States, Canada, and Mexico. Flight plan route shall not exceed Limited Over Water limits (162/100 nm).
The course I took covered the three divisions for which the B757/B767 serves; AE, HI, and LA. Consequently, all three divisions must be covered on my IOE (MIA-MXP = AE, PHX-KOA = HI, PHL-SJU = LA). So, what is different about international flying versus domestic flying? In short, pretty much everything. There are different fuel, alternate, crew rest, and aircraft requirements. While I would love to sit here and discuss all of these differences, I hardly have the time so I will just highlight a few things:
- Fuel Differences: On international flights, you have to carry an extra 10% of fuel called “enroute” reserve fuel. This rule was created long ago, before advent of advanced navigation, with the purpose of creating a fudge-factor in case the flight got lost. Because of advanced navigation such as GPS, this can now be reduced down to 5%.
- Alternate Differences: You must have an alternate for flights over 6 hours, an additional alternate for single-engine drift-down over mountainous terrain (if required), and then of course you need ETOPS alternates if operating in ETOPS airspace.
- Crew Rest Differences: We add extra pilots on long haul flying, we call this an “augmented crew”. When you indroduce this 3rd or 4th pilot to the party, there are new rules which apply to their rest requirements.
- Aircraft Differences: If planning to fly in ETOPS airspace, the airplane has to be ETOPS certified and it also has to have a pre-departure ETOPS maintenance check completed.
What is ETOPS?
While we are on the topic of international training, lets talk about ETOPS. A lot simmers think they know what it means, but actually don’t have the faintest clue. First, lets get the definition out of the way.
ETOPS consists of an aircraft certification, crew certification, and special operational procedures. ETOPS used to stand for, “Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards,” but it has since been redefined to simply, “Extended Operations.” To better understand ETOPS we must look at the rule that brings about the need for ETOPS and define a few more terms.
The FARs state that an aircraft carrying passengers cannot proceed farther than 50 NM offshore unless the aircraft is equipped with the proper emergency equipment (i.e. life vests).
- Limited EOW (extended over water): If equipped with life vests for all the passengers, an aircraft can proceed farther than 50 NM offshore under the following conditions:
- Off the east coast of the USA and above 30N, the aircraft is limited to 100 NM offshore.
- Off the east coast of the USA and south of 30N, the aircraft is limited to 162 NM offshore.
- Off the west coast of the USA, the aircraft is limited to 100 NM offshore.
- EOW (extended over water): If equipped with life vests, life rafts, portable ELTs, etc., an aircraft can proceed no farther than 1 hour single-engine cruising distance from a SUITABLE airport in still air. In the case of the B757/B767, this distance is agreed to be 435 NM.
- ETOPS (extended operations): If all required safety equipment is on board AND the operation is conducted with the proper crew/aircraft/maintenance certifications, an aircraft can proceed farther than 435 NM so long as they remain within 120 mins or 180 mins of a suitable alternate airport.
Initial Operating Experience (IOE)
This is the final phase of training and is conducted exclusively in the real airplane during regular scheduled line operations (i.e. with paying passengers on board). Most of the time, the passengers won’t know the difference unless of course my landings are absolute garbage. The training is conducted with a Check Airman (CKA) who is always a Captain and has been certified by the FAA and company to meet a high level of competency.
For the first flight, I was assigned to fly MIA to MXP in a B767-300ER. The flight was scheduled to be conducted with a three man crew due the the length of the flight (9+ hours). Typically this crew consists of a Captain, First Officer, and another First Officer called an “FB”. Other airlines call this second First Officer is called a “Second Officer” or IRO (International Relief Officer). The FB position is nothing different than a normal First Officer. He or she is qualified to fly the aircraft just like the First Officer, the only difference is that the FB is usually the junior guy on the flight deck, but that is not always the case. Some senior First Officers like to bid this position because it is a very easy job, they just have to monitor the controls and plot our position as we cross over the ocean. On longer flights to places like Asia, we can have a fourth guy called an FC. The company can even assign a second Captain to a flight as well, if they choose to do so. The purpose of all these pilots is so that we can take breaks enroute so as to not exceed our legal duty and flight time limits. For example, on the MIA to MXP leg, each pilot received a 2:25 minute break in the cabin when they were considered “not on duty”. On the MXP to MIA leg, the break was 3:00 minutes per pilot.
There always has to be two qualified pilots manning the flight controls at all times, and since I am not currently qualified, the company is not legally allowed to leave me up front without a supervisory pilot (e.g. Check Airman). The company had two options in this case, they could crew the MIA-MXP flight with three FOs and one CKA, or they could crew it with two Check Airmen and one FO (i.e. me). They chose the latter.
Two hours prior to scheduled departure, I met both my Check Airmen in the terminal and we proceeded to crew room to go over the flight paperwork.
MIA-MXP Flight Details
I have been doing this pilot thing for a long time and I will be completely upfront with our readers… this was not a typical IOE experience for a number of different reasons. First of all, the amount of preparation you have to do to fly internationally is probably triple that of a domestic flight. Usually, I can show up at the terminal about an hour before departure on a domestic flight and be fine, but that was not the case here. I needed the full two hours to prepare and actually could have used more time, but the flight paperwork doesn’t print out until approximately an hour and half prior to scheduled departure.
The second unusual occurrence during this IOE experience was the fact that we had a rather serious mechanical issue occur. Shortly after takeoff, and prior to our ETOPS entry point, we had a R GEN DRIVE caution EICAS message illuminate with the associated “DRIVE” light on the overhead panel. This means that the right electrical generator was either a.) overheating or b.) had low oil pressure.
The light went out after a minute and remained off for a majority of the flight, but then in the descent to Milan, the DRIVE light illuminated again and this time we had to push it. By pushing this button, it mechanically disconnected the generator from the engine and thus left us with only two electrical generators (left engine and APU). If you are down to one electrical generator, it is an emergency situation. Thankfully in this case we still had two working generators, so we didn’t have to declare an emergency.
Another issue that occurred on this first IOE trip was we had to revert to HF communications for position reports. When in non-radar airspace, modern aircraft use ADS-B and ADS-C to report the position and CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications) to communicate with oceanic control area ATC. On this particular night, there happened to be a solar storm and it knocked out our SATCOM for a good portion of our crossing, thus requiring that we revert back to old school HF communications.
I have included some portions of the flight plan paperwork in this blog with short descriptions of noteworthy items after each section.
-------------------------------------------------------------- Flight Plan - IFR Redacted/15 Redacted/Redacted MIA MXP ALTN ZRH MIN T/O FUEL 107255 RLS FUEL 109000 TOT BRN 89448 PLAN ARR FUEL 19552 02HR/07MIN ALTN RTE - R41 /FL280 MXP.BLA5S.CANNE.UZ651.KELIP. KELI2G.ZRH RTX - PLAN 1 OF 1 - RTE 68 - CTLD CALC/RTE/FL/FUEL - RVSN 1 - NON FAA PREF *** 1 ENGINE INOPERATIVE ENROUTE ALTERNATES *** *** NOT REQUIRED FOR RAMP WEIGHT AT OR BELOW 382272 LBS *** ** CRUISE ALT MUST BE AT LEAST 25000 FT **
- The landing alternate was ZRH (Zurich).
- The minimum takeoff fuel was 107255 lbs.
- We were released with 109000 lbs. of fuel which means they were planning 1745 lbs. for taxi and/or possible departure delays.
- We were planned to arrive with 19522 lbs. of fuel.
- No single-engine drift down alternates were required. What they did here was analysis the route for mountainous terrain. If our weight was such that we would not be able to clear all peaks single-engine, then dispatch would have had to includee a decision point along that portion of the route that contained mountainous terrain.
FF KZMAZQZX KDENXLDX KNPAXAAF EUCBZMFP EUCHZMFP CZULZQZX CZQXZQZX EGLLAALO KZWYZOZX KNYCZZZX LPPOZOZX 151918 Redacted ƒFPL-Redacted-IS -B763/H-SDE1E3FGHIM1J4J5RWXYZ/D1H -KMIA2050 -M077F350 SKIPS2 SKIPS DCT SLEMA M328 ANTIG DCT LAZEY/M078F350 DCT 34N060W 41N050W 43N040W 45N030W 46N020W 46N010W DCT SIVIR/M078F350 UN460 RIVAK/N0450F390 UN460 LMG UN857 BEBIX UP860 RUBLO/N0429F330 UP860 GIPNO/N0417F310 UP860 BALSI/N0394F270 UY11 BLONA/N0388F250 Y11 TOP -LIMC0828 LSZH -PBN/A1B1C1D1L1O1S2T1 NAV/RNVD1E2A1 DAT/1FANSP2PDC DOF/180315 REG/Redacted EET/KZNY0040 LAZEY0205 060W0213 050W0316 LPPO0406 EGGX0455 020W0546 010W0637 LFRR0643 LFRR0647 CNA0728 ADEKA0746 LIMM0805 BLONA0807 SEL/ALKQ RALT/KMIA TXKF LPLA LPPR
- The flight plan was sent to the following ATC facilities: KZMA (Miami ARTCC), KDEN (not sure why, but every flight plan goes there – I think it is NORAD), KNPA (not sure what this is, but I think it is “Double Shot”), EUCB, EUCH, CZUL (Montreal FIR? Not sure why the FP was sent there), CZQX (Gander Oceanic), EGLL (London Control, I assume because of Shanwick), KZWY (New York Oceanic), KNYC (KZNY is New York mainland, not sure what KNYC is), and LPPO (Santa Maria Oceanic).
- Our scheduled departure time was 2050z (KMIA2050).
- Our initial cruise was scheduled at Mach .77 at FL350 (M077F350).
- We were expected to enter oceanic airspace (east of 60W) at LAZEY at Mach .78 at FL350 (LAZEY/M078F350).
- We were planned on a random route. You can tell this by the absence of “NATx” from the flight plan.
- We were able to step climb at RIVAK to FL390.
- Total flight time was estimated at 8 hours and 28 mins (LIMC0828).
- We were planned to be in KZNY (New York Oceanic) 40 mins after departure, at LAZEY (oceanic entry) 2 hours and 5 mins after departure, and over to Santa Maria at 4 hours and 6 mins after departure, etc.
- Our ETOPS alternates were KMIA, TXKF, LPLA, and LPPR.
ETP/ETOPS ENROUTE ALTERNATE DATA MEETS 180 MINUTE AREA OF OPERATIONS RULE *** FULL ICE 180 MIN/320 KIAS *** ETP FOR KMIA/TXKF 3967 NM TIME 0053 ETP/FOB 093479 CRITICAL FUBO 017959 ENG OUT TIME FRM ETP 0057 DESC M080/320K CRUZ 320K FLVL 189 TO MIA N25477 W080174 0420 NM TH 247 MH 255 TD P07 WCP M023 TO BDA N32218 W064407 0488 NM TH 062 MH 075 TD P02 WCP P046 ETP/ETOPS ENROUTE ALTERNATE DATA MEETS 180 MINUTE AREA OF OPERATIONS RULE *** FULL ICE 180 MIN/320 KIAS *** ETP FOR TXKF/LPLA 2652 NM TIME 0310 ETP/FOB 069063 CRITICAL FUBO 037398 ENG OUT TIME FRM ETP 0218 DESC M080/320K CRUZ 320K FLVL 202 TO BDA N32218 W064407 0811 NM TH 238 MH 256 TD M01 WCP M067 TO TER N38457 W027054 1115 NM TH 087 MH 104 TD P06 WCP P051 ETP/ETOPS ENROUTE ALTERNATE DATA MEETS 180 MINUTE AREA OF OPERATIONS RULE *** FULL ICE 180 MIN/320 KIAS *** ETP FOR LPLA/LPPR 1276 NM TIME 0543 ETP/FOB 043651 CRITICAL FUBO 020211 ENG OUT TIME FRM ETP 0112 DESC M080/320K CRUZ 320K FLVL 207 TO TER N38457 W027054 0536 NM TH 218 MH 230 TD M03 WCP M012 TO OPO N41141 W008406 0569 NM TH 116 MH 124 TD M08 WCP P040
- ETOPS was planned using the 180 minute rule. This was no doubt due to the distance between TXKF (Bermuda) and LPLA (Lajes).
- The ETOPS diversions were planned with the anti-ice equipment ON due to the weather (extra fuel is burned with the anti-ice on).
- ETP stands for “Equal Time Point” and is the halfway point between ETOPS alternates, considering winds aloft.
- There were three ETPs for this flight, one located 53 mins after departure, one located 3 hours and 10 minutes after departure, and one located 5 hours and 43 minutes after departure.
- If an engine failure were to occur in ETOPS airspace and was prior to 53 minutes after departure, we were planning to return to KMIA. If the failure occurred after 53 minutes after departure, but before 3 hours and 10 minutes after departure, we planned to divert to TXKF. If the failure occurred after 3 hours and 10 minutes after departure, but before 5 hours and 43 minutes after departure, we planned to divert to LPLA. If the failure occurred after 5 hours and 43 minutes after departure, we planned to divert to LPPR.
- ETP FOB is the fuel expected to be remaining at the ETP and the critical FUBO is the bare minimum fuel needed to reach an ETOPS alternate.
-------------------------------------------------------------- Load Plan STA PRES ALT FLT/DTE AIRPL DTE/TIME MIA -163 ----/15 --- 15/2111Z *** 767 WNGLET DRY *** TEMP PTOW ATOW ZFW FUEL 23C 375.7 378.7 267.5 109.0P *********** THRUST / V-SPEED ********************************* *MAX* N1 TOW CG A/C ON 108.2 20.8 A/C OFF 108.5 RWY FLAP STAB A/C N1 V1 VR V2 AT MTOW --------------------------------------------------------- 08R 15 4.9 ON 104.6 151 154 159 41C 398.6L --------------------------------------------------------- 12 PTOW EXCEEDS MTOW - RQST NEW TPS --------------------------------------------------------- 09 15* 4.9 ON 103.9 151 154 159 43C 398.6L --------------------------------------------------------- 26L 15* 4.9 ON 104.3 151 154 159 42C 398.6L --------------------------------------------------------- 08L 15 4.9 ON 107.2 149 153 159 33C 389.0T --------------------------------------------------------- ...RWY 12 DATA BASED ON TAA 17-184... ******************** WEIGHT AND BALANCE DATA ***************** ------LOAD----------TOTALS-------LIMITS-----CMPT MAX--AS LDED-- EOW 212648 ZFW 267547 MZFW 291300 F1 23373 3290 PSGR WT 31506 FUEL 109000P *** STD *** F2 17418 12781 CGO WT 23393 RMP 376547 MRMP 409000 A1 20096 5999 BALLAST 0 TXI 840 A2 8039 1170 TOW 375707 AB 6450 153 CNFIG F 28 P 0 C 0 Y181 PSGRS F 27 P 0 C 0 Y139 W-0 X-0 CRT ADDRESS L017 Redacted PHONE Redacted ***************************************************************
- This section is generally referred to as the TPS (takeoff performance system).
- We were planned to weigh 375707 lbs. at takeoff (TOW).
- We ended up departing runway 8R, flaps 15, Packs ON, with standard thrust (using assumed temperature of 41 degrees C).
- Our MTOW (maximum takeoff weight) was limited by our max landing weight (MLW+burn = 398.6L).
- “15*” on the TPS indicates there is a more optimum flap setting for this runway, probably flaps 5.
- The airplane is configured to hold 28 people in business class, less one seat for the pilot rest area. So 27 passengers means the business class was booked full. The airplane is configured to hold 181 passengers in coach class, and we were only booked to have 139.
Sleep, Sleep, Sleep
The hardest part of this entire experience was the timezone changes and the resulting lack of sleep. To wrap your head around this problem, you have to understand why Europe-bound flights depart at the times they do (hint: it is all about the business traveler). Airlines schedule flights based on demand and which flights/times sell the most. For a very short period of time, my airline operated a flight that departed at 9:45 AM from a major northeast city to London-Heathrow. From a pilot’s perspective, this was the best international flight in terms of schedule because the crew flew all day, landed in London around 10 PM at night, and then went right to bed waking up refreshed and ready to explore the city the next day. However, despite it’s friendliness to the crew’s sleep patterns, this flight consistently under performed in terms of sales as it would regularly have 80 open seats. As you can imagine, the flight was shut down rather quickly and the experiment was squashed.
The fact of the matter is business travelers, and the companies they work for, do not want to lose a day of work in travelling. A flight that departs at 9 PM east coast time is far more productive because the business traveler flies all night, sleeps, and wakes up refreshed for another day’s work when they land in Europe, or at least that is the idea. If the business traveler is in business or first class, sleep may be a possibility, but it really takes a considerable amount of dedication and self-control to not indulge in the free food, free booze, and in-flight entertainment. In order to sleep effectively on a Europe-bound flight, a business traveler has to be in business or first class and go to sleep right after takeoff.
So, now that I have described the problems that a passenger might have when traveling to Europe, you can only imagine how hard it is for the pilots who are required to stay awake the entire flight. When we landed in MXP, I was an absolute zombie. It was approximately 9 AM when we finally got to the hotel and the entire crew (3 pilots and 8 flight attendants) all went straight to bed. The key on international flights is to not stay in bed for long, 3 hours maximum. I slept for approximately 4 hours and when I woke up around 2 PM, I was still exhausted. I forced myself out of bed and walked around for a few hours before the entire crew met up for dinner. We got back from dinner around 10 PM and by 10:30 PM I was back in bed again. I fell straight to sleep, but unfortunately woke up at 2:30 AM and was unable to get back to sleep. We had a 6:20 AM wake-up call for a 9:20 AM departure, which ended up getting delayed to 11:09 AM – so by the time I landed back in MIA, I had been up for approximately 19 hours.
MXP-MIA Flight Details
For the return trip from MXP-MIA, we were planned on a higher latitude routing due strong winds aloft to the south. These wind patterns actually caused the inbound aircraft to be delayed a bit, thus delaying our departure by about an hour in the morning. We were further delayed by some mechanical issues. Our APU decided to fail on us at the gate in MXP as well as the right Pack’s AUTO function.
Common sense tells us that the AUTO function of a Pack is probably not that big of a deal since there are manual modes, so we suspected the bigger issue was definitely going to be the inoperative APU. In order to confirm this suspicion, we checked both the QRH (quick reference handbook) and the MEL (minimum equipment list) to figure out the penalties for being dispatched with these inoperative items.
It turns out that in order for the APU to be MELed, the flight has to be dispatched using the 120 minute ETOPS rule. Fortunately we already had been planned using this rule so we simply MELed the APU and continued. Once we finally got all the mechanical issues sorted out, a new issue started to surface – the possibility that we (the pilots) may go illegal due to our duty day limit being exceeded. Remember that pilots can only be on duty for so long and since this flight was scheduled for 10 hours and 30 minutes, we really didn’t have much room for any delay. After some coordination with our crew scheduling department, we were able to continue.
The weather in MXP on that morning was bad; it was cold, lots of rain, and overcast skies. These conditions required engine anti-ice to be selected ON. We were also extremely heavy carrying almost 30000 lbs. more fuel than the MIA-MXP leg. When we lifted off the ground and started the process of retracting flaps, it was very noticeable that we were heavy. The gap between the high and low speed stall buffet on the airspeed indicator shrunk to a very thin margin.
Once again, I have included some portions of the flight plan paperwork in this blog with short descriptions of noteworthy items. Read the section and then check my notes below each section.
-------------------------------------------------------------- Flight Plan - IFR Redacted/17 Redacted/Redacted MXP MIA ALTN PBI MIN T/O FUEL 130294 RLS FUEL 133640 TOT BRN 115294 PLAN ARR FUEL 18346 01HR/46MIN ALTN RTE - R11 /FL100 MIA.DCT.FLL.DCT.PBI RTX - PLAN 1 OF 1 - RTE 61 - CTLD CALC/M/RTE/FL - NON FAA PREF *** 1 ENGINE INOPERATIVE ENROUTE ALTERNATES *** *** SEE ENROUTE ALTERNATE INFORMATION BELOW ***
- The landing alternate for this flight was PBI (West Plam Beach).
- The minimum takeoff fuel was 130294 lbs.
- We were released with 133640 lbs. of fuel which means they were planning 3346 lbs. for taxi and/or possible departure delays.
- We were planned to arrive with 18346 lbs. of fuel.
- This time, since we were so heavy and planned to fly over the Alps right after departure, we were dispatched with a single-engine drift down alternate.
FF EUCBZMFP EUCHZMFP CZYZZQZX CZULZQZX EGLLAALO CZQXZQZX KDENXLDX KNPAXAAF LSASZQZX LFRRZQZX EISNZQZX CZQXZOZX KZBWZQZX KZMAZOZX 170548 Redacted ƒFPL-Redacted-IS -B763/H-SDE1E3FGHIM1J4J5RWXYZ/D1H -LIMC0935 -M080F300 AOSTA UM729 MOLUS DCT UNKIR UM729 DJL UH10 AMODO UM729 RESMI UN491 LGL UN502 JSY UN160 INSUN UM142 LESLU/N0461F330 DCT MALOT/M080F330 NATH TUDEP/N0477F360 N398A TOPPS/N0466F380 DCT EMJAY J174 SWL DCT CEBEE DCT WETRO DCT DIW AR22 JORAY/N0474F240 HILEY7 -KMIA1005 KPBI -PBN/A1B1C1D1L1O1S2T1 NAV/RNVD1E2A1 DAT/1FANSP2PDC DOF/180317 REG/Redacted EET/LSAS0015 LFMM0018 LFFF0034 LFRR0100 EGTT0121 EISN0142 MALOT0218 020W0243 CZQX0332 040W0419 050W0509 TUDEP0526 TOPPS0653 SEELO0902 KZMA0921 SEL/LMQS RALT/EGPK BIKF CYQX
- The flight plan was sent to the following ATC facilities: EUCB, EUCH, CZYZ (Toronto FIR), CZUL (Montreal FIR), EGLL (London FIR), CZQX (sent twice to Gander – for both oceanic and domestic), KDEN, KNPA, LSAS, LFRR (Brest ACC), EISN (Shannon ACC), KZBW (Boston ARTCC), and KZMA (Miami ARTCC).
- Our scheduled departure time was 0935z (KMIA0935).
- Our initial cruise was scheduled at Mach .80 at FL300 (M080F300).
- We were expected to enter oceanic airspace at MALOT at Mach .80 at FL330 (MALOT/M080F330).
- We were planned on North Atlantic Track Hotel (NATH) to TUDEP.
- We were able to step climb to FL360 at TUDEP and FL380 at TOPPS.
- Total flight time was estimated at 10 hours and 5 minutes (KMIA1005).
- We were planned to be in Shanwick Oceanic Area (MALOT) 2 hours and 18 minutes after departure, Gander Oceanic Area (CZQX) 3 hours and 32 minutes after departure, etc.
- Our ETOPS alternates were EGPK, BIKF, and CYQX.
ETP/ETOPS ENROUTE ALTERNATE DATA MEETS 120 MINUTE AREA OF OPERATIONS RULE *** FULL ICE 120 MIN/320 KIAS *** ETP FOR EGPK/BIKF 3272 NM TIME 0242 ETP/FOB 095304 CRITICAL FUBO 022793 ENG OUT TIME FRM ETP 0116 DESC M080/320K CRUZ 320K FLVL 189 TO PIK N55305 W004356 0535 NM TH 074 MH 084 TD M06 WCP M021 TO KEF N63591 W022363 0610 NM TH 353 MH 009 TD M06 WCP P030 ETP/ETOPS ENROUTE ALTERNATE DATA MEETS 120 MINUTE AREA OF OPERATIONS RULE *** FULL ICE 120 MIN/320 KIAS *** ETP FOR BIKF/CYQX 2638 NM TIME 0408 ETP/FOB 079062 CRITICAL FUBO 027615 ENG OUT TIME FRM ETP 0138 DESC M080/320K CRUZ 320K FLVL 197 TO KEF N63591 W022363 0742 NM TH 032 MH 053 TD M06 WCP P014 TO YQX N48562 W054340 0707 NM TH 250 MH 273 TD M06 WCP P006
- ETOPS was planned using the 120 minute rule. Typically over the North Atlantic, we can plan using the 120 minute rule due to the abundance of suitable alternate airports.
- There were two ETPs for this flight; one located 2 hours and 42 minutes after departure and one located 4 hours and 8 minutes after departure.
- If an engine failure occurred in ETOPS airspace and was prior to 2 hours and 42 minutes after departure, we planned to divert to EGPK. If the failure occurred after 2 hours and 42 minutes, but before 4 hours and 8 minutes, we planned to divert to BIKF. If the failure occurred after 4 hours and 8 minutes, we planned to divert to CYQX.
-------------------------------------------------------------- Load Plan STA PRES ALT FLT/DTE AIRPL DTE/TIME MXP 1207 ----/17 --- 17/0923Z *** 767 WNGLET WET *** TEMP PTOW ATOW ZFW FUEL 8C 402.2 405.2 269.0 134.3A *********** THRUST / V-SPEED ********************************* ******************* * ANTI-ICE ON * ******************* *MAX* N1 TOW CG A/C ON 106.1 23.2 A/C OFF 106.4 RWY FLAP STAB A/C N1 V1 VR V2 AT MTOW --------------------------------------------------------- 35L 05 4.7 ON 106.1 155 166 171 MAX-WT 408.0S --------------------------------------------------------- 17R 05* 4.7 ON 105.7 153 166 171 29C 408.0S --------------------------------------------------------- 17L 05 4.7 ON 104.2 155 168 172 34C 408.0S --------------------------------------------------------- 35R 05 4.7 ON 106.1 155 166 171 MAX-WT 407.8T --------------------------------------------------------- ******************** WEIGHT AND BALANCE DATA ***************** ------LOAD----------TOTALS-------LIMITS-----CMPT MAX--AS LDED-- EOW 207885 ZFW 269037 MZFW 291300 F1 23373 5401 PSGR WT 38742 FUEL 134300A *** STD *** F2 17418 7562 CGO WT 22410 RMP 403337 MRMP 409000 A1 20096 7447 BALLAST 0 TXI 1160 A2 8039 1600 TOW 402177 AB 6450 400 CNFIG F 28 P 0 C 0 Y181 PSGRS F 27 P 0 C 0 Y175 W-0 X-0 CRT ADDRESS L010 AGENT Redacted PHONE Redacted ***************************************************************
- Notice that this TPS was planned with engine anti-ice ON and with WET V-speed numbers.
- We were planned to weigh 402177 lbs. at takeoff (TOW). We actually ended up being heavier than that.
- We ended up departing runway 35L, flaps 5, Packs ON, with MAX thrust.
- Our MTOW (maximum takeoff weight) was limited by our structural limit (408.0S).
- Business class was full and there were on 6 open seats in coach according to this plan.